Following is a list of studies and publications in our library or on related websites that can be accessed using the “click here” buttons.


1. Importance of highways in general

Building for the future of British Columbia: the importance of transportation infrastructure to economic growth and empoyment, David Gillen, Centre for Transportation Studies, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, 2012, 47 pages.  Title is self explanatory.  To read, Click here.

2. Third Crossing Society in the news

To access most articles, viewpoints and comments published in the print edition of the Powell River Peak or on its website,  click here.  Articles and comments have also appeared in the Squamish Chief, Whistler Question, Globe and Mail and elsewhere.  For the Squamish Chief, click here.

Premier Christy Clark came to town in late January 2017 for the first time since becoming Premier, and gave The Peak a twenty-minute, no-holds-barred interview, in which she talked about Powell River’s need for better transportation.  To read the interview, click here.0

Eight Possible ‘Fixed Link’ to the Sunshine Coasts.   At an open house last October, the Ministry of Transportation and R.F. Binnie & Associates unveiled eight possible fixed links to the Upper and Lower Sunshine Coasts, and invited those interested to take part in a survey.  To view the alternatives, click here.

BC’s ‘best kept secret’ ponders ambitious bridge proposal, National Post, October 28, 2016.  The Post’s take on the fixed link study, public reaction to the idea, etc.  To read,  click here.

Lobby group wants tolls and bridges to help Sunshine Coast access,  The Vancouver Sun, October 20, 2016.  Author Stephen Hume bases his article on the Third Crossing Society’s Benefits discussion paper, using the public uproar over last summer’s big ferry lineups to reinforce it.  To read, click here.

Howe Sound, Nelson Island bridges urged. Letter, Powell River Peak, Nov. 3, 2016.  Province should use federal funds to build bridge from Saltery Bay to Nelson Island; similarly, across Howe Sound from the lower coast to Highway 99.  To read, click here 

‘Transportation Minister responds to ferry concerns’ Powell River Peak, October 5, 2016.  Click here for the article. 

‘Third crossing sought’ Vernon Morning Star, June 18, 2016. To read, click here.

‘Third route to the Coast?’ Castanet, June 17, 2016. To read, click here.

‘Interior would gain with third route, group says’ News Kamloops, June 17, 2016. To read, click here.

‘New highway piques regional district’s interest’ Campbell River Mirror, June 16, 2016. To read, click here.

‘Sunshine Coast link faces long road’ Vancouver 24 Hrs, June 15, 2016. To read, click here.

‘Local government meetings to inform Sunshine Coast fixed link study’ BC Government, June 15, 2016. To read, click here.

‘Third Crossing Society Looks For Support’ 99.7 FM Campbell River Now, May 31, 2016. To read and listen click here.

‘Third Crossing’ proposed Kristen Douglas, Campbell River Mirror, May 31 2016.  To read more click here.

‘The need for the often-discussed fixed link between the Sunshine Coast and the Lower Mainland has never been stronger’ Jack Barr, Vancouver Sun, April 27, 2016. To read more, click here.

Cost-Benefit Study of ‘Fixed Link’ to Sunshine Coast, 2015.  The Ministry of Transportation announced on September 18 that it would retain a consultant qualified to assess the costs and benefits of some form of highway link between the Sunshine Coast and Metro Vancouver, including “options ranging from a highway link around Jervis Inlet, to direct bridge connections along the coast.” To read the news release, click here.

‘Four places where a Sunshine Coast-Lower Mainland connector could go’ Justin McElroy, Global News, September 19, 2015. To read more, click here.

‘If it’s good for Kamloops . . .’ Regional Chair likes idea of proposed highway, but wants more details. click here.

‘Stone ponders road for Sunshine Coast’, Les Leyne, Times Colonist, December 10, 2015.  Columnist Leyne writes that Transportation Minister Todd Stone’s vision of integrating the Sunshine Coast with the rest of B.C. has a long, long way to go.  To read, click here.

Squamish road petition gathers steam. Chris McMillan launched an online petition on change.org in early January, calling for the federal government to construct a road from Powell River to Squamish. At last count McMillan had received over 1,8,00 signatures.  To read more, click here.

The Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure announced today, February 2, 2016, that Vancouver-based civil engineering firm R.F. Binnie & Associates has been awarded a $250,000 feasibility study contract.  To read more, click here.

‘Sunshine Coast highway good for Powell River says mayor’ CBC News, February 4, 2015. To read and listen, click here.

3. Virtual Flyover

The video above is a great way to see how our highway would make its way through the mountains, starting on Highway 101 south of Powell River and ending south of Whistler, on Highway 99.  You will also get a sense of how much of the roadbed already exists as logging roads, and why a tunnel is being proposed at one location.

4. Tunnel Issues

Norway Tunnel Safety, Reza Lahidji and Marit Undseth, 2006.  A study in risk management prepared for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. To read, click here.

 5. Studies by the Third Crossing Society

Determining Feasibility – December 6, 2016.  The Binnie Report is at the ‘order of magnitude’ stage of determining its feasibility; there are three stages to go, and they’re all time consuming.  To read, click here.

Estimating Road Costs — The Ministry of Transportation’s order-of-magnitude construction cost estimate of 1998 compared to the Third Crossing estimate, September 19, 2016.  Eighteen years ago, the Ministry of Transportation estimated the cost of a route similar to that proposed by the Third Crossing Society.  The Society’s estimate was based on a tunnel of 3.2 kilometres; the Ministry’s on a tunnel of 14 km, four times as long.  This study reconciles the two estimates.  To read more, click here.

Two Roads To Prosperity, updated June 2016.  A short, powerful summary of the Third Crossing and why it would be good for the province.  To read, click here.

Ports Report, June 2016. To read, click here.

Powell River Opinions Regarding The Third Crossing’s Proposed Road, May 2016. To read, click here.

A Critique Of The Terms Of Reference Of The Ministry Of Transport And Infrastructure – Sunshine Coast Fixed Link Study, December 17, 2015.  To read, click here.

Capacity Issues At BC Ferries. To read, click here.

BC Population by Regional District, 2015.  Residents of the southern regional districts (74% of the population) are served by the well known first crossing of the province.  The second crossing is up north.  We contend there ought to be a third crossing, above the southernmost regions.  For the population figures by regional district, click here.

Latitudes of BC Cities and Towns, 2015.  We have a crossing in the south and another far to the north, but nothing in the middle.  To read more, click here.

The Case for a Third Crossing of British Columbia, December 11, 2014.  Submission to “BC On The Move,” an initiative of the Minister of Transportation and Infrastructure to develop a ten-year plan for improving the province’s highway system.  To read our submission, click here.

Elevations along the route, 2014.  The height above sea level at various points along the Goat Main and D Branch.  To read it, click here.

Highest Points on BC’s Major Highways, 2015.   Compares high points on proposed third crossing with passes and summits elsewhere on BC’s highways.  To read, click here.

Construction Cost Estimate – updated, 2015.  How we arrived at an estimate of $500- to $600-million.  Click here.

Comparable Costs of Other Major Projects, 2014.  The estimated cost of the proposed highway and tunnel compared with the cost of other infrastructure projects in BC, the United States and Norway.  To read, click here.

BC Logging Road Management, 2014.  The types of road in British Columbia, their total length, and where responsibility lies for each type.  To read,  click here.

LIDAR: a promising technology, 2014.  Uses GPS and laser technology to plot the likely optimum path of new road from the air.  To read, click here.

Vancouver Island Real Estate Board Survey Of Home Buyers 2013. To read, click here.

Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT).  Highway planners use a statistic called the “Average Annual Daily Traffic” (AADT) to determine how many vehicles, on average have travelled particular roads per day.    They use a related statistic, the “Monthly Average Daily Traffic” (MADT) to determine seasonal variances.   To read click here.

Annual Average Daily Traffic On Selected Roads, Ferries And Tunnels, 1992-2015.  This measure – AADT for short – is the total volume of vehicle traffic on or in any of the above public conveyances in a given year, divided by 365 days. It’s a measure of how busy that road, ferry or tunnel was in that particular year. To learn its relevance to our proposed Third Crossing, click here.  See also “Ferry Traffic Statistics” below.

Income analysis, by route – B C Ferries, 2015. To read, click here.

See also “Savings Accruing to BC Ferries” below.

6. Studies by B.C.’s Ministry of Transportation & Infrastructure

Gabriola Island Fixed Link Feasibility Study 2016 To read, click here.

Request for Proposals Sunshine Coast Fixed Link 2015 To read, click here.

Road Assessment Harrison Mills To Mt. Currie 2003 To read, click here.

Conceptual Alignment Study, Sunshine Coast – Sea to Sky Highway, 2001.  At the time, the cost of this connecting highway was pegged at $1.05 billion.  To read, click here.

Powell River to Squamish Valley Road Link – Order of Magnitude Cost Estimate, 1998.  At the time, the cost of this connecting highway was pegged at $1.24 billion.  To read, click here.

7. B C Ferries studies and reports

October 30, 2016:  Updated Traffic Stats

BC Ferries Financial Results, Fiscal 2014-15. This excerpt from the ferry corp.’s annual report to the commissioner, is a good overview of how the ferries affected BC’s bottom line in the fiscal year just past.  To read it, click here.

Ferry Utilization Statistics – 2012/2013:  Starting on page 10.  To read, click here.

Ferry Traffic Statistics, Fiscal 2011-15.

March_2015_Ferry Traffic_Stats

March_2013_Ferry Traffic_Stats

March_2011_Ferry_Traffic_Stats

Notes on Selected Ships.  Ship length, carrying capacity, displacement, etc.  Source: BC Ferries.  To read, click here.

The Regional District Coastal Chairs Group’s 2015 Annual Report on the BC Ferry System. In this report, the Chairs of BC’s coastal Regional Districts argue that the Coastal Ferry Act 2003 is failing the Province and its people, and recommend that for the sake of the coastal economy, ferry fares be lowered to induce more people to travel.  To read the report, click here.

Savings accruing to BC Ferries from Increased Traffic on Route 17 created by Highway 100, 2015.  Building a connecting road to Highway 99 from the Westview ferry terminal would give a severely under-utilized ferry run a dramatic boost in both traffic and revenue.  To read, click here.

Strategies for Enhanced Efficiency in Performance Term 4 and Beyond, Submission from BC Ferries to the BC Ferries Commissioner, September 30, 2014.  Every four years, the corporation sends the Commissioner a report on which the government can base “rate caps” for the next performance term.  In this report, the Ferries’ Chief Financial Officer describes steps the corporation has taken or will take to cut costs and raise revenue in the current term (April 2012 through March 2016), and what it expects between April 2016 and March 2020.  To read it, click here.

British Columbia Ferry Corporation and Fiscal Fairness for Ferry-Dependent Communities, Gordon Wilson, 2013.  In this study the former BC Liberal Leader and Ferries Minister contends that as  currently constituted, BC Ferries violates the British Columbia government’s fiduciary obligation to the 20 per cent of its population that live in ferry-dependent coastal communities. To read the study, click here.

Boatswains to the Bollards: A Socioeconomic Impact Analysis of BC Ferries, August, 2014.  A policy paper commissioned by the Union of British Columbia Municipalities challenges the inequity of the federal subsidy to east coast ferry operations relative to those on the west coast.  The study reveals that Atlantic Canada’s ferry passengers get 350 times the federal subsidies that ferry passengers in B.C. receive.  Put another way,  Atlantic ferry passengers are subsidized to the tune of $493 per passenger, compared to $1.41 per passenger on BC Ferries, although ferry use in B.C. is 20 times greater.  To read more, click here.

B.C. could take a lesson from Alaska Ferries. Vancouver Sun columnist Stephen Hume writes that our northern neighbour reaps monetary and social dividends by keeping fares low.  To read more, click here.

8. Other ferry systems

Alaska Marine Highway System Fund Report 2015. To read more, click here.

Alaska Marine Highway System Annual Traffic Volume Report 2015. To read more, click here.

9. Indigenous People Caselaw

Delgamuukw v. British Columbia.     A 1997 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada dealing with aboriginal rights and title.  Please see http://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/1569/1/document.do

Tsilhqot’in v. British Columbia.  A 2014 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, also dealing with aboriginal rights and title.  Please see https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/14246/index.do